For those who are not familiar with the term JAX-RS; it an API for building RESTful web services. The most recent release is JAX-RS 2.0 and is covered in JSR 339. Some of the most popular implementations of the API include:

While I believe that JAX-RS API is quite complete, I find it lacking one feature in particular: support for the HTTP PATCH method. If you attempt to use the @PATCH annotation on any of the methods of your resource classes, you’ll soon discover that JAX-RS does not define this annotation. According to some the @PATCH annotation was not included in JAX-RS 2.0 because the HTTP PATCH method is not that widely understood and used. Whether or not this is the actual reason, let’s assume so and first find out what it is used for, before exploring how to use it in JAX-RS applications.

Introducing the PATCH method

The HTTP PATCH method is defined in RFC 5789 as an extension of HTTP 1.1, and provides a dedicated request method to apply partial modifications to a resource. Note that the PUT method could not be used for this purpose since its definition specifies that is used to completely overwrite a resource. Now that it clear what the PATCH method is used for, let’s see why one would use it anyway.

Suppose you already have built a REST API and a new customer comes that wishes to use your API to connect your services to their application. Obviously their data model differs from yours and they are only interested in querying and updating a subset of your data. Now what happens if they want to update the name of a project (an entity exposed by your web service)? Without the PATCH method, the customer needs to first perform a GET request to obtain the latest version and then a PUT request for the same project with an updated name property. While this approach works it has some problems:

  • There is considerable overhead, since it requires two HTTP requests. Also, depending on the used format used to exchange the entity, it requires you to deserialize and serialize the entity. Furthermore more data is transferred than necessary, since the entire project state is transferred, while the only information that needs to be conveyed to your web service is the new project name.
  • Chances are that concurrency eventually becomes an issue. The project state might actually be changed in between of the GET and PUT requests, resulting in lost modifications.

Both issues are addressed if your web service instead offers support for partial modification using the PATCH method. In this scenario the customer only needs to make a single PATCH request for the project in question that only contains the new project name. If your web service accepts JSON for example, one way to update the project name could be using the following request body:

It does not get much simpler than this.

Existing solutions

The scenario presented above is not that far away from a real JAX-RS based application that I have been working on. So when I tried to implement patch support in the application I quickly discovered JAX-RS does not offer any. Instead of trying to reinvent the wheel I first searched for solutions provided by others. Apart from some details on how to implement a @PATCH annotation, which is quite easy, I found only one solution that actually explains how to deal with partial modifications in JAX-RS. This is the Transparent PATCH Support in JAX-RS 2.0 article written by Gerard Davison. In summary the approach presented in this article suggests using a ReaderInterceptor to internally first call the @GET annotated method in the same resource class to obtain the current state of the object that needs to be updated. Then a JSON patch is applied to that object to obtain the new modified state of the object. While this solution works for certain cases, it has the following limitations and drawbacks:

  • It requires a ‘@GET‘ annotated method without any parameters to be present in the same resource class. It is quite reasonable to assume that whenever your resource class exposes a PATCH endpoint there is also a GET endpoint available. However, the main problem lies in the fact that the @GET method cannot take any parameters. This makes the solution impossible to use when you need an id parameter for example.
  • The solution has a dependency on the MessageBodyWorkers class provided by Jersey and is therefore not agnostic of the JAX-RS implementation.
  • The PatchReader class is annotated @PATCH, which in turn is annotated with @NameBinding. To me this feel like a violation of the single responsibility principle.

Supporting partial modifications in JAX-RS

Since none of the solutions I found was really usable, I started working on a better one, which I will describe below. First lets get the @PATCH annotation out of the way. As said before it turns out the @PATCH annotation is quite easy to implement. Simply by looking at the source of existing HTTP method annotations, like @GET, it becomes clear how a @PATCH annotation can be implemented.

Since the @HttpMethod annotation is treated as a transitive annotation, the @PATCH implementation above can simply be used for methods in resource classes that process PATCH requests. Note that the @PATCH annotation by itself does not yet enable us to perform partial modifications. In fact the only thing it adds is the ability to handle incoming PATCH requests. So in order to enable partial resource modification we need something more. Let’s start by introducing an interface that enables us to perform an update to a certain resource:

The only method provided by the ObjectPatch is an apply method that takes an object as input and which returns the same object after the modifications have been applied to the input object. Note that the input object is returned for convenience, but this is not strictly necessary since the input object is modified. Using generics we can ensure that the return type of the method is the same as the input type of the target parameter. Also, something might go wrong while the modifications are applied, hence the apply method may throw our own defined ObjectPatchException. The following example demonstrates how the ObjectPatch will be used in a resource class:

Of course the example above is incomplete, but it outlines how to process partial modifications for a resource. Apart from the fact that the example is incomplete, it also would not work since no ObjectPatch implementations are available. If you would run the example, and tried to perform a PATCH request you will be treated with a nice HTTP 500 – internal server error. This is because there is no way for the used JAX-RS implementation to provide an ObjectPatch instance. Therefore we need to tell the JAX-RS implementation how to create instances of the ObjectPatch interface. Fortunately we can do this without committing to a specific JAX-RS implementation. Via the MessageBodyReader interface JAX-RS allows you to define your own method of reading a specific Java type from an InputStream.

To create our own MessageBodyReader implementation for the ObjectPatch interface, we first need to decide on the format of the patch that the reader accepts. We’ll start simple by accepting partial JSON objects. Suppose our Customer entity has several properties, including a name property, then the following request would update the name of customer with id 1:

In order to support the request above the MessageBodyReader needs to be able to parse JSON. The Jackson library will do nice for this. Our MessageBodyReader then looks like this:

The isReadable method is called for each message body parameter to check whether the MessageBodyReader can create an instance of the specified Java type for given media type. In our case this is true for the ObjectPatch interface and application/json media type. Conversion of the message body to an ObjectPatch instance happens in the readFrom method. Here Jackson is used to first read a JSON tree from the provided InputStream of the request body. Then we return a new instance of PartialJsonObjectPatch, which is instantiated with the JSON tree that was read from the request body. PartialJsonObjectPatch implements the ObjectPatch interface and the implementation is given below.

The magic of the PartialJsonObjectPatch class happens of course in the apply method. Jackson is again used to obtain an ObjectReader instance that can be used to update the target object given some JSON source. In the try-catch-block the reader is used to update the target object using the JSON tree that was passed to the constructor of the PartialJsonObjectPatch instance. Any IOException that might be thrown by Jackson is caught and wrapped in a ObjectPatchException.

And thats all! The solution presented above is really all that is necessary to support partial resource modifications. Note that I have not explained how to register the PartialJsonObjectPatchReader class with the JAX-RS implementation. This is something you will need to do, otherwise the JAX-RS implementation is not aware of your MessageBodyReader and the solution does not work. It is out of scope to explain how to register MessageBodyReader classes as this differs per JAX-RS implementation. However, at the end of this article you will find a link to a fully working example project that uses Jersey and you can look at the source to discover how MessageBodyWriter classes are registered using Jersey.

Adding JSON patch (RFC 6902) support

While the partial resource modification support that is outlined above works like a charm, it has some limitations. With the partial JSON object approach you can only replace the value of certain properties with another value. But what if you want to insert an element into a property that contains and array or want to update the value of property from a nested object? This again would only be possible by first obtaining the current state of these properties, applying the modifications and then sending the updated properties back to the web service. A GET request would then still be necessary prior to making the PATCH request. To address this problem the JSON patch specification (RFC 6902) was drafted.

Let’s assume our Customer entity (introduced in the previous section) also has a phoneNumber property, which contains an array of strings. Using JSON patch, inserting a phone number in the second position of this array for customer with id 2, would look like this:

Note that RFC 6902 uses a new media type: application/json+patch. Our application would not support the request above, since it uses a different media type. Also, ignoring the different media type, the current implementation expects an object as root of the JSON tree, rather than an array. JSON patch uses an array in which each element describes an operation that needs to be applied in order to perform the modifications. In the example above there is one operation: inserting the value "666" at the second position of the phoneNumbers array.

How do we get our application to support JSON patch requests like the one shown above? If a library exists that implements RFC 6902 then this will get us a long way. Fortunately this is the case and I have chosen zjsonpatch for this as it also uses Jackson 2.x. Let’s start by creating a new MessageBodyReader for JSON patch requests.

As you can see the implementation is almost identical to that of the PartialJsonObjectPatchReader class presented earlier. The only differences are that it only accepts requests with a media type of application/json+patch and that it returns an JsonObjectPatch instance rather than a PartialJsonObjectPatch instance. Since there is nothing special that is new, we’ll continue with the JsonObjectPatch implementation.

As before, the JsonObjectPatch class does not differ much from the PartialJsonObjectPatch class. In fact the only difference can be found in the apply method. Instead of applying the patch JSON tree directly on the target object, zjsonpatch is used to apply the patch JSON tree on a JSON tree of the target object. This is placed in a try-catch-block since zjsonpatch may throw a NullPointerException (probably due to a flaw in the implementation) if the patch JSON tree does not conform to the RFC 6902 specification. Finally the resulting JSON tree is applied to the target object as before using an ObjectReader.

Again you will need to register the JsonPatchReader with the JAX-RS implementation before it is recognized. After doing so your application will be able process JSON patch requests! Hooray!


This article has presented a way to implement support for partial resource modification in JAX-RS based web services. First it has shown how to be able to support HTTP PATCH requests and then outlined a solution of processing partial resource modifications via partial JSON objects and JSON patch (RFC 6902). The solution is designed to be agnostic of the JAX-RS implementation and in theory should work with any library/framework that implements JAX-RS 2.0. It also shows how your application can be extended to support other data formats to apply partial modifications. For example support for JSON merge patch, RFC 7386, or the XML equivalent of JSON patch, RFC 5261, could easily be supported as well using the same concepts.

To demonstrate the solution presented in this article, I have made a complete example application which can be found at the following GitHub repository: The example application uses an embedded Jetty server in combination with Jersey to provide a simple web service for maintaining a collection of customers.

As a final note let me address one drawback of the presented solution. Contrary to the to POST and PUT request methods, it is no longer possible to directly obtain an instance of your entity from the request body as a parameter of the method in your resource class that processes the request. Hence you lose the ability to add annotations to the entity instance. This can be a problem for example if you make use of Bean Validation (JSR 303). One way to deal with this problem is to obtain an reference of the Validator instance and call its validate method manually inside the method that processes the partial resource modification.